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INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY.                                 151
the mountains is the same which prevails all over India in
those hilly districts in which there is a moderate rain-fall be-
twcen June and September, and diy weather for the remain-
der of the year. The moisture-loving- types of Malabar and
the Concan do not occur, and the common trees arc Butea
frondosa, Acacia Catechu^ Cassia Fistula, Careya arbofea,
and all those trees which are common in the tropical parts of
the middle Himalaya. The same vegetation extends north-
ward along the west face of the Arawali range, and probably
on the Katiwar lulls. In the valley of the Nerbada, which is
more humid, a more varied flora will probably be met with.
14. SINDH.
The province of Sinclh extends from the sea on the south
to the borders of the Panjab on the north „ Westward it is
bounded by the mountains of Beluchistin, and on the east it
is continuous with the desert of Morwar. Sindh is an alluvial
plain watered by the various branches of the Indus. For the
most part it is perfectly level, hut a few low liills (spurs from
t lie Beluoh mountains) here and there, as at Rori, Hyderabad,
and Karachi, advance close to the Indus.
The climate of Sindh is perfectly arid, little or no rain falling
at any period of the year. Now and then, however, exceptional
seasons occur, when heavy showers fall at intervals, especially
at the commencement of the south-west-monsoon, at which
time there is a considerable rain-fall in the mountains of Be-
luchistau and Afghanistan. The average rain-fall of Sindh is
not more than four or five inches, but occasionally upwards of
twenty inches of rain have been registered. Even with this
amount of rain, however, the climate is so dry that the air does
not remain humid for any length of time, the storms being
transitory in duration. Tho heat is therefore very great, and
tluğ, mo.au temperature probably as high aĞ anywhere in India.
Though extremely tortile where irrigation is practicable,
Sindh is, in consequence of the grout clryness of the air, na-
turally stmle. Tiux* Js no forest of largo trees; uwl though